Qualification: Level 3 Diploma in Adult Care Optional Units
Unit: Unit 387 Contribute to effective team working in health and social care
Learning outcome: 1 Understand theories of teams and team working
Assessment criteria: 1.1 Compare models of team working
- Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development:
- Tuckman’s model proposes that teams move through four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing.
- In the forming stage, teams come together and start to understand the task at hand.
- During the storming phase, conflicts can arise as members’ opinions and ways of working clash.
- In the norming stage, the team starts to resolve conflicts and work more cohesively.
- Finally, in the performing stage, the team is fully functional and productive.
- The advantage of this model is that it helps predict and understand team dynamics, but it doesn’t necessarily provide strategies for managing or improving these dynamics.
- Belbin’s Team Roles:
- Belbin’s model suggests that the most effective teams have a mix of nine different roles: coordinator, shaper, plant (creative thinker), monitor-evaluator, implementer, completer-finisher, resource investigator, team worker, and specialist.
- The theory is that a balanced team, with all these roles represented, is more likely to be successful because it can handle a wider range of challenges.
- However, it might not always be feasible or desirable to have all nine roles in a team, especially in smaller teams or those with specific tasks.
- Lencioni’s Five Dysfunctions of a Team:
- Lencioni’s model identifies five issues that can hinder team performance: absence of trust, fear of conflict, lack of commitment, avoidance of accountability, and inattention to results.
- The theory suggests that by addressing these dysfunctions, a team can become more cohesive and productive.
- The challenge with this model is that it requires a high level of honesty and openness within the team, which might be difficult to achieve in some environments.
- Hackman’s Conditions for Effective Teams:
- Hackman’s model proposes that effective teams require five conditions: a clear and engaging direction, an enabling team structure, a supportive organizational context, expert coaching, and adequate resources.
- This model is useful in highlighting the organizational factors that can impact team effectiveness.
- However, it might overlook some of the more nuanced interpersonal dynamics that can also influence how a team performs.
- Katzenbach and Smith’s Team Performance Curve:
- This model suggests that teams move through different levels of performance: from working group to pseudo-team, to potential team, real team, and ultimately high-performance team.
- The model can help identify a team’s current level and the steps needed to reach higher performance.
- However, it might oversimplify the process of team development, which can be influenced by a wide range of factors.
- All of these models and theories offer valuable insights into team working. The most appropriate one to use can depend on the specific context, including the team’s size, its goals, the individuals within the team, and the wider organizational culture and structure.