Gender and culture in psychology – universality and bias. Gender bias including androcentrism and alpha and beta bias; cultural bias, including ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.

Qualification: A-Level Psychology
Paper: Issues and options in psychology
Unit: Issues and debates in psychology
Assessment criteria: Gender and culture in psychology – universality and bias. Gender bias including androcentrism and alpha and beta bias; cultural bias, including ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.

  • Gender bias = One gender is treated differently and more negatively than the other through discrimination, stereotyping and further forms of sexism.
  • Androcentrism = Gender bias where female thinking and behaviour is seen as different and deviant whereas male thinking and behaviour is seen as normal and acceptable.
  • Alpha bias = Too much emphasis is made on male and female differences and characteristics.
  • Beta bias = Not enough emphasis is made on male and female differences and characteristics.
  • Culture bias = Where research favours certain cultures or generalises findings of one culture to another, ignoring their differences.
  • Ethnocentrism = Where the researcher presumes their own culture as ‘correct’ and research centres around this particular culture without looking into cultural differences.
  • Cultural relativism = Viewing beliefs and values from a particular culture from the viewpoint of the culture itself.

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    Study Bullets ⇒ A-Level Psychology ⇒ Issues and options in psychology ⇒ Gender and culture in psychology – universality and bias. Gender bias including androcentrism and alpha and beta bias; cultural bias, including ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.